BMW 3 Series E30
since 1983-1994 release
Repair and operation of the car
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Useful tips
14.2. The changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the used car
14.9. Engine oils
14:10. What needs to be known, changing oil
14:11. Emergence in deposit oil
14:12. Whether it is possible to mix import oils?
14:13. "Eats" much, but quietly goes
14:14. It is rather live, than is dead …
14:15. It is not got - useful tips
14:16. Visit to car service
14:17. A gear belt for the gas distribution mechanism drive
14:18. Wear of pistons
14:20. Bearings of engines
14:21. Pollution of the engine
14:22. As the conditioner works and what to do if it failed
14:23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14:24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14:25. Antifreeze you should not disturb with antifreeze …
14:26. What should be known upon purchase of the air filter
14:27. Engine overheat
14:28. What should be known to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14:30. Possible malfunctions of the rechargeable battery
14:31. What to do with the failed generator
14:32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14:34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14:36. Features of operation of the brake system
14:37. Malfunctions of the brake system
14:38. Brake fluids
14:39. ABS: natural choice
14:41. We update rims
14:42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14:43. Metal corrosion
14:45. What creaks?
14:47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14:48. We fit well?
14:49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14:50. Why headlights grow dull
14:52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14:53. Electric motor
14:54. From change of the places "composed" nothing changes?
The era of steel stamped wheels, apparently, slowly consigns to the past. Steel is forced out by light alloys. Than the steel disk is bad? Yes, in general, almost everything it is good. Cheap, reliable, rather strong. At very strong blow does not burst, and it is rumpled – means, there is a chance to restore it. If you perceive the car only as the hard worker if you are not confused by a type of steel stamping if your purse is not too burdened by notes – nothing the best is necessary to you. Take. And the one who is anxious with own image clear, behind the price will not stand, and will take light-alloy. The look at it, of course, is more modern, than at steel. And a variety of types is wider. The production technology of disks from light alloys allows designers to embody any imaginations in metal, to do wheels in any style – from a retro to futuristic. Light alloys give the chance to sensitively monitor trick of technical fashion what you will not tell about steel – stamping it and there is a stamping, on it design especially will not play, opportunities are limited, and therefore – with it it is boring.
But not only to these desire of producers to replace steel with light alloys speaks. There are also other reasons, not less weighty. Purely technical. For example, weight reduction. Let's notice, not the gross weight of the car – if the polutoratonny device means and will dump couple of tens of kilograms, hardly it will be big achievement. The speech about weight reduction of not subspring parts, that is all that jumps shivers and turns under a car body. Here fight goes for each kilogram.
Accuracy of production of light-alloy wheels is much higher, than steel. So, and balancing can be carried out more precisely. Application of a light-alloy wheel improves cooling of brake knot, and not only thanks to high heat conductivity of the metals entering alloy, but also because in it it is admissible to do very big openings (without losing durability and winning in weight) that promotes the best obduv. There were quite enough listed advantages in order that the leading firms relied on light alloys – aluminum and magnesian. Despite of their high cost.
Is, however, in a camp of steel disks one which can argue with light-alloy on beauty, ease and "produvayemost". It is classical spoke a disk. Once it was very popular, it was put on the most prestigious cars, on it won races... But eventually it did not sustain the competition even with usual stamped. First, its production more labor-consuming and consequently, he is dearer. To stamp a nave and a rim, of course, business simple and inexpensive, but here manual assembly... Secondly, it became clear that when using a spoke disk it is very difficult to provide optimum controllability and stability of the car at high speeds. And in the sixties the spoke wheel quitted the stage. However now "easily raftsmen" do stylizations under it as the fashion for spokes remained.
As do disks
Uniform technical characteristics, design and cost of a disk are defined not by alloy. Important and in what way it is made. The light-alloy wheel, both aluminum, and magnesian, can be either is cast, or forged – forging is called still volume hot stamping.
Casting. This way is most widespread. Cast aluminum wheels went to mass production after 1964 when Americans began to establish them on sports models. Italy and Japan in 1967 began to equip with cast disks serial cars that caused chain reaction in other countries – since then aluminum casting began to force out steel stamping slowly but surely. This way is very technological. It almost does not give waste that promotes decrease in prime cost of the final product. There are, of course, also shortcomings. First, the cast disk demands reliable protection of a surface, without it it quickly loses a trade dress – aluminum becomes covered by a whitish oxidic film. Secondly, it is fragile – at strong blow breaks up. To provide sufficient mechanical durability, it is necessary to increase thickness of walls, and it reduces so desired prize in weight.
Pour also magnesium. But in very limited quantities. In spite of the fact that cast magnesian disks give solid economy of weight (about 2,5 kg on a wheel), producers of production cars prefer not to contact them – requirements to protection of a surface are too high. Besides, such disks quickly crack. Magnesium is good not in cast option, and in shod.
Forging. If not the high cost caused by complexity and power consumption of technology, shod disks, probably, would win long ago the market – on the majority of characteristics they do not have equal. At strong blow the shod disk does not burst as cast, and it is rumpled. Cracks on it are not formed therefore the probability of depressurization of the tubeless tire is quite small. Air, of course, can come out in the place of a bend of a zakraina of a rim, but to rumple a zakraina of a shod disk it is necessary to manage still – forging provides the exclusive durability and rigidity of a design.
Shod wheel very easy. Compare: the steel disk for the 7th BMW model weighs 9 kg, cast aluminum – 7,8 kg (for comparison one of the easiest cast designs is taken), and shod aluminum – 6,8 kg. Corrosion firmness of a shod product is much higher, than cast. The aluminum shod disk does not demand protection – if it and do, then it is rather for an insurance, but not as necessary. Magnesian shod, of course, it is necessary to protect, but not so seriously and carefully as cast. Shod disks, especially magnesian, in the West – very expensive pleasure are also applied only on prestigious and on racing cars.
So, you chose material, design and the price. Now things are easy – to buy. Also it is desirable so that: a) did not palm off on you under the guise of company production some homemade rubbish which should be thrown out through couple of thousands of kilometers,
b) the bought disks would suit the car not only on design, but also by the sizes. It is simple to execute these conditions. It is necessary to buy, first, disks in shops with good reputation. The prices in them, clear, corresponding, but here to you to solve what to hope for – at random or on a guarantee. Secondly, it is necessary to know a size range of the disks suitable your car and to be able to read the markings which are beaten out on disks. Therefore do not consider the following information a persuasive educational program. It is useful.
Rim tire sizes
This nomination includes two parameters – the assembly diameter and width of a rim. The complete series of assembly diameters of automobile and off-road disks looks so: 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 inches. The disk with a diameter of 10 inches to you will interest only in those cases if you go by the legendary Soviet S-3D microcar for disabled or have the small trailer for country needs. Besides, 10-inch castors are put on tiny city micropenalties (them often call microdwarfs), but this class of cars in Russia will not be presented for a long time – they can be used only on ideally flat roads, and with it, as we know, at us a crunch. Disks with an assembly diameter of 12 inches are used redno too, but, of course, to a pro-thicket. than 10-inch (on Oka, for example). The vast majority of modern cars runs on 13, 14, 15 and 16-inch disks. Recently there was a fashion for increase in assembly diameter – those cars for which a family are, for example, 13-inch disks, translate on 14-inch, 15 on 16 and so on. It is explained by the aspiration to use tires of low series as their riding qualities it is better, than at tires of a high profile. And the tire series is lower, the it is less in a wheel of rubber and, respectively, more metal – is natural if the outer diameter of a wheel remains invariable. When using steel disks especially you will not increase assembly diameter – it will lead to increase of mass of a wheel that is undesirable. Here as it is impossible by the way disks from light alloys had – their application allows to increase assembly diameter, without making heavier a wheel in general. The fashion for rubber of ultralow profiles (the tire of series 40, 35 and even 30) moved tuning firms on equipment of cars of top-class disks of very big diameters – 17, 18 and 19 inches. At a view sideways of such car and tires it is almost not noticeable – the huge brilliant disk zastit eyes, and the tire looks a thin black kayemochka. Looks beautifully and it is technically quite justified, but start up this fashionable animal on our roads – to the first pothole will reach, and further? Such tuning, alas, not for us. Under our conditions the kayemochka has to be thicker – at least than the 60th series. Otherwise you will not save enough "iron".
Further. Rim width. At the majority of cars this size does not go beyond the following row: 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0; 6,5; 7 inches, however on tuning modifications, on SUVs and on sports models are applied also wider disks – to 13,5 inches. How to choose the necessary width of a rim? There is a golden rule: it has to be 25-30% less than tire profile width. As width of a profile of the tire is usually specified in millimeters, and rim width – in inches, upon purchase of disks you should make simple mathematical calculation. Let's say you look for a disk under the tire 195/70R15. Width of its profile is 195 mm. In inches it will be 7,68 (it is necessary to divide 195 on 25,4). Now take away from the received size of 25% or 30% and round to the next value from the standard row given above. Receive 5,5 inches – the rim of such width is necessary for the tire 195/70R15. Use of both too wide disks, and too narrow is undesirable: the design profile of the tire (sidewalls or are compressed by rim zakraina, or are stretched on it) is broken and, therefore, its riding characteristics – reaction to turn, resistance to withdrawal, side rigidity worsen. The rim width tolerance from regular size makes 0,5–1,0–1,5 inches for disks with a diameter more than 15 inches. But it is better to take, of course, a disk precisely under the tire.
Wheel departure. This distance between the longitudinal plane of symmetry of a rim and the fixing plane of a wheel. For each model of the car the departure pays off so that optimum stability and controllability of the car, and also the smallest load of bearings of naves were provided. The majority of serial cars is issued with departures of wheels on 0 mm (GAZ-3102) to +38 mm (Opel Corsa, Toyota Corolla, Mitsubishi Colt, VAZ-2109), but range, of course, is not exhausted by it – models meet a departure both-46, and +59. Producers do not recommend to put for the car disks with a departure, emergency for this model. Its reduction does a track of wheels wider – though it a little and increases stability of the car, gives it more racing look, but at the same time sharply reduces a resource of bearings of naves and creates additional load of a suspension bracket (to increase a departure, that is to narrow a track of wheels, most often it is impossible – the disk will rest against a support or against the brake drum).
Wheel car sizes
With it usually problems do not arise – each car owner perfectly knows what bolts, nuts, hairpins the wheel to its car fastens. In number of fastening openings it is difficult to be mistaken too – hardly you buy a disk with four openings if on a nave of an axis of the car 5 hairpins stick out. Happens, make the wrong choice of diameter of the central opening of a disk (if the mistake in minus, a wheel simply does not sit down on the place) and diameter of an arrangement of openings of fastening. It is both specified in catalogs which are in any decent shop – before purchase of disks ask the seller to be verified with them. At native wheels of the car the central opening of a disk is, as a rule, precisely adjusted to an axis nave: at the plants it is accepted to align a wheel on it – its diameter is landing. But if you buy disks in the secondary market, be not surprised to the fact that the central opening can appear more put. Producers of spare parts often do it obviously increased diameter (a wheel in this case align on diameter of an arrangement of openings of fastening – it is designated by PCD – Pitch Circle Diameter) and supply a disk with set transitional Kolya that allows to use it on different models of cars. But it is better to do without rings. Though in them there is no big crime, after all than it is less in knot of "excess" details, it is more reliable than subjects.
Full or almost full information on a disk is given by marking which has to be cast or beaten out in a visible place. That is on any surface of a disk, except that part of a rim which is turned to the tire. It does not make sense to apply marking on a landing surface as disks often are on sale assembled with tires which close inscriptions. In our market you can face different options of marking – as a rule, with Russian, American and European. They differ from each other in manner of performance a little, but it should not confuse you – just same information is conveyed to the buyer by means of different, depending on concrete national standards, symbols. Let's consider as an example marking of the SUV of a disk of the American firm ALCOA.
The first. It, of course, a company name, its emblem (something, reminding hourglasses), the sign protecting the right of the producer to be called by itself (a letter R in a circle), and the country of production of a disk (Made in USA).
Further. A standard size – 15x10JJ. It means that this disk has the assembly diameter of 15 inches and width of a rim of 10 inches. Consider that on the European and Russian disks these parameters are specified in the return sequence – 10JJx15, and in a tail of this inscription also some letters are attached (for example so: 10JJx15CH). In the index which is put down after value of width of a rim (in our case it is JJ), information on design features onboard закраин this rim – various tilt angles, radiuses of a curve and other is coded. Instead of JJ J, JK, K or L – depending on what form закраин rims is chosen by designers for this disk can be written. And what mean the letters which are put down after assembly diameter? Before answering this question, it is necessary to remember in what the main difference of a disk for the chamber tire from a disk of tubeless consists. Remembered? Available at "tubeless" hamp – special ring ledges on the shelves of a rim holding the tire from a soskakivaniye from a disk at side blow and at loss of pressure. Designs of hamp very much – there is an idle time хамп (H – Hump is designated), is flat хамп (FH – Flat Hump), asymmetric хамп (AH – Asymmetric Hump) and still a great number of others. Sometimes on rims do the special shelf (SL – Special Ledge) which parameters are verified so that the tire reliably keeps also without hamp. Happens, on outer side of a rim хамп one type, and on internal – another. All these combinations also make a reservation in a dimensional inscription. In the European option of marking – 10JJx15CH – letters mean that on this disk the Combi Hump system is applied (combined хамп). It is not obligatory to penetrate into what with what is combined to the buyer, it is information for experts. You can remember values of these small letters only as required to flash erudition in a conversation with fellows on a wheel.
On a disk date of production (year and week) is surely specified. Number 0294 means that the wheel is released in the second week 1994.
The inscription PART NO 150410-A is number of that party of castings from which preparation for a disk is taken. If in use at a disk factory defect is found, trade inspection will be able to determine by this number in what link of a technological chain marriage is allowed. The Russian and European producers usually designate number of casting by four-digit number.
N48 T-DOT – the brand of supervisory authority (speaking our way, Quality Department) confirming that the goods are checked in all respects and suitable for the use. DOT means that the disk conforms to the American standards of safety. Some firms brand the production not dry indexes, but birdies, florets and an other art.
On cast disks for beskamery tires besides a brand of usual Quality Department also the X-ray control brand which demonstrates that the disk has no internal defects – molding sinks is put.
MAX LOAD 3000 LB – maximum static weight load on a disk. Having transferred 3000 pounds to measuring system habitual to us, we will receive 1362 kg.
FORGED in translation from English means shod. Existence of such inscription in marking is not obligatory, it is not provided by any standards. As a rule, it is done on the superfashionable disks forged from light alloy. It means that the manufacturing firm just wishes to please the vain buyer and to attract monetary clients. Shod, and especially shod magnesian disk – madly expensive (in the West) and prestigious – a sign of a solvency of the owner. And here not to do without the inscription FORGED in any way. Say, let all see what I am abrupt...
There is in the American marking one more interesting inscription: MAX PSI 50 COLD. It means that pressure in the tire which is put on this disk should not exceed, in our example, 50 pounds per square inch (3,5 kgfs/cm of quarter); the word cold (cold) reminds that it is necessary to measure pressure in the tire when it cold, that is to a trip or not right after it.
It would seem why to specify on a disk the air pressure if it is stipulated in requirements to the tire and is defined first of all it, but not a disk, by a design? Experts explained that it is the clever insurance move. Let's say at a drift at great speed the car flies sideways in a border – the tire comes off a rim, the disk bursts (if it cast, shod is rumpled). Cause of accident you. naturally, you consider quality of a disk (rotten palmed off, does not hold the tire) and you appeal to court with intention to maintain the claim to his producer. But the court will solve business in your advantage only in case you accurately observed ALL instructions and restrictions concerning a dispute subject. And if it is found out that in the tire which is put on a disk with the inscription MAX PSI 50, these PSI was though is one pound more (it will find out, having measured pressure in the escaped tires, – it is meant that it identical on all four wheels) – compensations not to see.
Will not pay for the come-off tire. It is logical: the rim reliably holds the tire, only when that is not pumped over, and a rating limit see in marking of a disk (in this sense, by the way, the inscription MAX PSI on a disk is quite justified technically). And what is interesting, too will not pay for the burst disk. Why? Yes all therefore. Non-compliance with the instruction. It seems what communication? And it is unimportant. The Ministry of Health warned...
As we see, the inscription – is good a catch in lawsuit. Not to pay superfluous in claims. Americans knew inside out insurance affairs. Europe did not reach similar pettifogging yet – in any case, there nobody specifies tire MAX PSI on disks. Or almost anybody.
You, probably, paid attention that in marking of the considered disk there are no such important things as a departure and the connecting wheel car sizes. Generally the departure is without fail specified by all European firms and the majority American (our example in this sense is atypical). Germans designate ET departure (it is admissible, ET 30, if its size positive, or ET-30, if negative), French – DEPORT, all others cost the English OFFSET. The wheel car sizes are specified quite seldom. If you happen to see on any disk an inscription, for example, of PCD 100/4, know that diameter of an arrangement of openings of fastening of this disk to a nave of an axis is equal to 100 mm, and openings 4. The last, however, is visible also without hints.